The Warsaw Pact has completed the existing agreements. After World War II, the Soviet Union had bilateral agreements with every Eastern European country except the GDR, which was still part of the Soviet territory occupied by Germany. When the Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in early May 1955, the Soviets feared the consequences of strengthened NATO and a resurgence of the Federal Republic of Germany, hoping that the Warsaw Treaty could encompass West Germany and negotiate with NATO as an equal partner. Soviet leaders also noted that unrest intensified in Eastern European countries and decided that a unified political and military alliance would more closely link Eastern European capitals to Moscow. The Treaty of Brussels, signed on 17 March 1948 by Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and the United Kingdom, is considered to be the precursor to the NATO agreement. The Treaty and the Soviet blockade of Berlin led to the creation of the Western European Union defence organization in September 1948. The participation of the United States, however, was deemed necessary to counter both the military might of the USSR and to prevent the resumption of nationalist militarism. In addition, the 1948 Czechoslovakian communist coup had overthrown a democratic government and British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin reaffirmed that the best way to prevent a new Czechoslovakia was to develop a common Western military strategy. Before the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovakian leaders attempted to conclude a security pact with East Germany and Poland for fear of a modernized Germany.
 These states have strongly protested against the remilitarization of West Germany.  The Warsaw Pact was introduced as a result of West Germany`s rearmament within NATO. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared that Germany would once again be a military power and a direct threat. The consequences of German militarism remained a new memory among the Soviets and Eastern Europeans.      As the Soviet Union had already concluded bilateral agreements with all its eastern satellites, the pact had long been considered “unnecessary”, and, because of the hasty manner in which it was conceived, NATO officials called it a “cardboard castle”.  The USSR had proposed NATO membership in 1954 for fear of the re-establishment of German militarism in West Germany, but the United States and Britain opposed it.   In 1989, public discontent in the population overthrew the communist governments of the Warsaw countries. Independent national politics made possible with political perestroika and glasnost causing the institutional collapse of the communist government in the USSR in 1991. From 1989 to 1991, communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Romania, Bulgaria and the Soviet Union.